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Quantumness of Correlations, Maxwell's Demon, Weak Measurement

"Weak Measurement and Two-State-Vector Formalism: Deficit of Momentum Transfer in Scattering Processes"
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
QUANTA  2016, 5, 61-84

DOI: 10.12743/quanta.v5i1.48

Abstract: The notions of weak measurement, weak value, and two-state-vector formalism provide a new quantum-theoretical frame for extracting additional information from a system in the limit of small disturbances to its state. Here, we provide an application to the case of two-body scattering with one body weakly interacting with an environment. The direct connection to real scattering experiments is pointed out by making contact with the field of impulsive incoherent neutron scattering from molecules and condensed systems. In particular, we predict a new quantum effect in neutron-atom collisions, namely an observable momentum transfer deficit; or equivalently, a reduction of effective mass below that of the free scattering atom. Two corroborative experimental findings are shortly presented. Implications for current and further experiments are mentioned. An interpretation of this effect and the associated experimental results within conventional theory is currently unavailable.


"Quantumness of Correlations and Maxwell’s Demon in Molecular Excitations Created by Neutron Scattering"
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 2015, 115, 909–929

DOI: 10.1002/qua.24935

Abstract: Nonclassical correlations known as entanglement, quantum discord, quantum deficit, measurement-induced disturbance, quantum Maxwell’s demon, etc., may provide novel insights into quantum-information processing, quantumthermodynamics processes, open-system dynamics, quantum molecular dynamics, and general quantum chemistry. We study a new effect of quantumness of correlations accompanying collision of two distinguishable quantum systems A and B, the latter being part of a larger (interacting) system B+D. In contrast to the common assumption of a classical environment or “demon” D, the quantum case exhibits striking new qualitative features. Here, in the context of incoherent inelastic neutron scattering from H-atoms which create molecular excitations (vibration, rotation, translation), we report theoretical and experimental evidence of a new phenomenon: a considerably reduced effective mass of H, or equivalently, an anomalous momentum-transfer deficit in the neutron-H collision. These findings contradict conventional theoretical expectations even qualitatively, but find a straightforward interpretation in the new theoretical frame under consideration.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.



Entanglement, Decoherence, and Attosecond Dynamics in Molecules and Condensed Matter

"Indications of energetic consequences of decoherence at short times for scattering from open quantum systems"
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, E. MacA. Gray, and T. P. Blach
AIP Advances 1, 022118 (2011).


Abstract: Decoherence of quantum entangled particles is observed in most systems, and is usually caused by system-environment interactions. Disentangling two subsystems A and B of a quantum system AB is tantamount to erasure of quantum phase relations between A and B. It is widely believed that this erasure is an innocuous process, which e.g. does not affect the energies of A and B. Surprisingly, recent theoretical investigations by different groups showed that disentangling two systems, i.e. their decoherence, can cause an increase of their energies. Applying this result to the context of neutron Compton scattering from H2 molecules, we provide for the first time experimental evidence which supports this prediction. The results reveal that the neutron-proton collision leading to the cleavage of the H-H bond in the sub-femtosecond timescale is accompanied by larger energy transfer (by about 3%) than conventional theory predicts. It is proposed to interpreted the results by considering the neutron-proton collisional system as an entangled open quantum system being subject to decoherence owing to the interactions with the "environment" (i.e., two electrons plus second proton of H2).


"Anomalous Quasielastic Electron Scattering from Single H2, D2 and HD Molecules at Large MomentumTransfer: Indications of Nuclear Spin Effects"
G. Cooper, A. P. Hitchcock, and C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
Physical Review Letters 100, 043204 (2008).

  Abstract: Quasielectron electron scattering from gaseous H2, D2, a 50:50 mixture of H2 and D2, and HD is investigated with 2.25 keV impact energy and a momentum transfer ħq of 19.7 a.u. The energy transfer is less than the dissociation energy. The spectral positions of the H and D recoil peaks agree with Rutherford scattering theory. Surprisingly, in the spectrum of the 50:50 H2-D2 mixture, the integrated intensity of the H peak is 31% ± 4% lower (as compared to that of D) than predicted by Rutherford scattering, despite equal screening of nuclear charges by the electrons. In contrast, the ratio of scattering intensities from H and D in HD agrees with the predictions of Rutherford scattering. Comparison is made with neutron Compton scattering results from the same systems, but at higher energy transfers causing bond breaking. Possible theoretical explanations are outlined.

"Anomalous Neutron Compton Scattering from Molecular Hydrogen"
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, T. Abdul-Redah, and M. Krzystyniak
Physical Review B 72, 054123 (2005).

"Comparison of Electron and Neutron Compton Scattering from Entangled Protons in a Solid Polymer"
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, M. Vos, C. Kleiner, and T. Abdul-Redah,
Physical Review Letters  91, 057403 (2003).


Some related Science Highlights :

"A Water Molecule's Chemical Formula is Really Not H2O"
American Institute of Physics, The AIP Bulletin of Physics News, Physics New Update  No. 648, 31 July 2003: http://www.aip.org/enews/physnews/2003/split/648-1.html 

"H2O a misnomer?"
American Physical Society: Physics Tips Sheets 36, No 6, 30 July 2003

"Entangled Protons in a Solid Polymer"
Physics Today, September 2003, p.9, section Physics Update,
Entangled Protons in a Solid Polymer. In condensed matter systems, adjacent nuclei and their nearby electrons can all, in principle, be in a state of quantum entanglement, but the decoherence time would be exceedingly short--in the subfemtosecond realm. Still, the effect could be observable, according to Aris Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann (Technical University Berlin), because the time scale is roughly the same as the interaction time for Compton scattering. Several years ago, he performed neutron Compton scattering off water molecules and saw an anomalous shortfall of scattering from protons, which he attributed to short-lived nuclear entanglement. Now, he and his collaborators have Compton-scattered both neutrons and electrons off protons in a polymer called formvar. The electron experiments, done at the Australian National University in Canberra, showed precisely the same shortfall as the neutron experiments, done at the ISIS neutron spallation source in the UK. The similarity of the results is striking because the two projectiles interact with protons via fundamentally different forces--electromagnetic and strong. (C. A. Chatzidimitriou- Dreismann et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057403, 2003.)

"Missing: One-Quarter Hydrogen"
Scientific American, October 2003, p. 20, section News Scan

"Wasser ist nicht H2O - Berliner Forscher machen Entdeckung bei Kurzzeitmessungen"
Der Tagespiegel, "Forschen", Seite 38, 11. Dezember 2003

"Das verschwundene halbe Wasserstoffatom - TU-Wissenschaftler entdeckte Sensationelles in molekularer Materie"
TU intern, Nr. 12, Dezember 2003

"Die Rätsel des Wassers - Chemiker stoßen auf Ungereimtheiten beim Wasserstoff"
Deutschlandfunk, Deutschlandradio, Forschung aktuell, 5. Januar 2004
Physik. - Die chemische Formel H2O - Wasser - ist bekannt wie keine zweite. Doch nach jüngsten Untersuchungen eines Berliner Wissenschaftlers ist sie aber auch falsch. Vielmehr müsste sie korrekt "H1,5O" lauten. Denn, so maß der Forscher, ein Viertel aller enthaltenen Protonen verschwinden schlicht. ......

"Ein Atomkern verschwindet"
Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, "Wissenschaft", Seite 57, 27. Juni 2004
Ultrakurze Aufnahmen lassen Moleküle merkwürdig aussehen: Ein Teil ihrer Wasserstoffkerne ist plötzlich weg. Wasser etwa ist nicht mehr H2O, sondern H1,5O. Was geht da vor? ......

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Related Papers

"Anomalous Neutron Compton Scattering Cross Sections in Niobium and Palladium  Hydrides"
E. B. Karlsson, T. Abdul-Redah, R. M. F. Streffer, B. Hjörvarsson, J. Mayers, and C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
Physical Review B   67, 184108 (2003)

"Sub-Femtosecond Dynamics and Dissociation of C-H Bonds in Solid Polysyrene and Liquid Benzene "
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, T. Abdul-Redah, R. M. F. Streffer, and J. Mayers
Journal of Chemical Physics  116, 1511-1518 (2002)

"Entanglement of Protons in Organic Molecules: An Attosecond Neutron Scattering Study of C-H Bond Breaking "
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, T. Abdul-Redah, and B. Kolaric
Journal of the American Chemical Society 123, 11945-11951 (2001)

"Sub-Femtosecond Dynamics and Dissociation of C-H Bonds in the Condensed Phase: Effects of Entangled Protonic States"
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, T. Abdul-Redah, and J. Sperling
Journal of Chemical Physics  113, 2784-2792 (2000)

"Comment on: Precision Neutron Interferometric Search for Evidence of Nuclear Quantum Entanglement in Liquid H2O-D2O Mixtures "
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, T. Abdul-Redah, R. M. F. Streffer, and B. Hessmo
Physical Review Letters  84, 2036 (2000)

"First Observation of Molecular Vibrational Excitations of Water with Inelastic X-Ray Scattering "
C. Halcoussis, T. Abdul-Redah, H. Naumann, G. Monaco, and C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
ESRF Newsletter 34, 17-18 (October 2000)

"Anomalous Neutron Compton Scattering in Nb-Hydride: Indications of Proton Correlations "
E. B. Karlsson, C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, T. Abdul-Redah, R. M. F. Streffer, B. Hjörvarsson, J. Öhrmalm, and J. Mayers
Europhysics Letters  46, 617-623 (1999)

"Anomalous Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Liquid H2O-D2O: Evidence of Nuclear Quantum Entanglement "
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, T. Abdul-Redah, R. M. F. Streffer, and J. Mayers
Physical Review Letters  79, 2839-2842 (1997)

"Proton Nonlocality and Decoherence in Condensed Matter - Predictions and Experimental Results"
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
Advances in Chemical Physics  99, 393-430 (1997)

"Anomalous Neutron and Raman Scattering due to EPR Correlated Protons in Liquid water"
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann and J. Mayers
Physica B 226, 231-233 (1996)

"Experimental Evidence for Nonclassic Fourth-Order Interference in the Quasielastic Light Scattering of Water."
U. K. Krieger, F. Aurich, and C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
Physical Review A  52, R1827-R1830 (1995)

"Evidence of Quantum Correlation Effects of Protons and Deuterons in the Raman Spektra of Liquid H2O-D2O."
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, U. K. Krieger, A. Möller, and M. Stern
Physical Review Letters  75, 3008-3011 (1995)

"Anomalous H+ and OH-   Conductance in H2O-D2O Mixtures"
H. Weingärtner and C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
Nature 346, 548-550 (1990).

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Correlation Effects in Biomolecules (DNA)

"Hidden Messages in DNA?"

D. Larhammar and C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
Sceptical Inquirer  23, (No. 2), 42-43 (1999)

"Lack of Biological Significance in the 'Linguistic Features' of Noncoding DNA - A Quantitative Analysis."
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, R. M. F. Streffer, and D. Larhammar
Nucleic Acids Research  24, 1676-1681 (1996)

"Quantitative Test of Long-Rang Correlations and Compositional Fluctuations in DNA Sequences."
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, R. M. F. Streffer, and D. Larhammar
European Journal of Biochemistry  224, 365-371 (1994)

"Variations in Base Pair Composition and Associated Long-Range Correlations in DNA Sequences - Computer Simulation Results."
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, R. M. F. Streffer, and D. Larhammar
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1217, 181-187 (1994)

"Biological Origins of Long-Range Correlations and Compositional Variations in DNA."
D. Larhammar and C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
Nucleic Acids Research  21, 5167-5170 (1993)

"Long-Range Correlations in DNA."
C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann and D. Larhammar
Nature 361, 212-213 (1993)

Resonant (Metastable) States and Complex Spectral Representations

"General Properties of the Spectrum of Complex Scaled Hamiltonians: The Transition to Two Dimensions."

H. Lehr and C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
Physical Review A  52, 2935-2942 (1995)

"General Properties of the Spectrum of Complex Scaled Hamiltonians: Detachment Point and Localization Threshold."
H. Lehr and C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann
Physical Review A  51, 3005-3016 (1995)

"General Properties of the Spectrum of Complex Scaled Hamiltonians: Phenomenological Description of Pole String Curves." H. Lehr and C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann Physical Review A  50, 2347-2365 (1994)

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